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Offices Air-conditioned Naturally ventilated*
Good practice Typical practice Good practice Typical practice
£ / sq m NLA / year £20.48 £29.65 £9.58 £18.15
£ / sq ft NLA / year £1.90 £2.75 £0.89 £1.69
 
Energy (kWh electricity equivalent / sq m NLA / year) 222 294 88 187
Electricity (kWh / sq m NLA / year) 179 253 68 139
Fuels & thermals (kWh / sq m NLA / year) 63 112 84 124
Enclosed Shopping Centres
Air-conditioned Non air-conditioned
Good practice Typical practice Good practice Typical practice
£ / sq m CPA / year £9.77 £14.55 £8.17 £13.24
£ / sq ft CPA / year £0.91 £1.35 £0.76 £1.23
 
Energy (kWh electricity equivalent / sq m CPA / year) 100 150 81 129
Electricity (kWh / sq m CPA / year) 88 129 73 117
Fuels & thermals (kWh / sq m CPA / year) 21 38 20 36
Unenclosed Shopping Centres
Good practice Typical practice
£ / sq m NLA / year £0.37 £0.71
£ / sq ft NLA / year £0.03 £0.07
 
Energy (kWh electricity equivalent / sq m NLA / year) 3.5 6.1
Electricity (kWh / sq m NLA / year) 3.0 6.0
Fuels & thermals (kWh / sq m NLA / year) 2.0 3.0
Retail car parks
Open Covered Enclosed
Typical practice Typical practice Typical practice
£ / car park space / year £11.02 £50.28 £50.23
 
Electricity (kWh / car park space / year) 106 484 483

Energy

  • Typical practice = median (50th percentile),
  • Good practice = best performing quartile (25th percentile)
  • Benchmarks are calculated from the average of the most recent three years of data; based on properties for which at least three years of validated data are available within the last five years.
  • Electricity equivalent (kWhe) = kWh of electricity equivalent. Electricity ‘equivalence’ is calculated using the ratio of carbon intensities between each fuel and electricity. It combines into kWh of electricity equivalent, measuring the amount of electricity used and adding an equivalent amount to account for any other fuels used. Electricity = 1, fuels = 0.4 and thermals = 0.5.
  • Costs (£) are based on 2014 UK industry electricity and natural gas prices from the European Commission and are exclusive of taxes and levies. Electricity prices are based on annual consumption levels of >500 MWh and <2,000 MWh. Gas prices are based on consumption levels of >10,000 GJ and < 100,000 GJ.
  • Fuels and thermal energy consumption for heating is adjusted for weather.
  • All energy consumption is adjusted to the survey norm of hours of operation.


Offices

  • The benchmarks are based on whole building data only. Buildings that submit only part building consumption are excluded.
  • The benchmarks are based on offices which have an average annual occupancy rate of 75% or more in all three of the years of validated data. It is recognised that it may be advantageous to adjust the KPI for occupancy. This may be introduced in the future, once an agreed methodology can be adopted by the initiative.
  • It is recognised that whole building energy intensity using NLA as the denominator is, to an extent, a mismatch between numerator and denominator (NLA as opposed to GIA with whole building energy) but this is the most consistently available and accurate denominator.


Retail

  • Shopping centre (enclosed and un-enclosed) data excludes occupier and car park energy consumption where metering allows.
  • It is recognised that NLA for un-enclosed shopping centres is a mismatch between numerator and denominator (NLA as denominator with landlord shared services for use in common and predominantly unenclosed areas) but in the absence of a more suitable denominator that is consistently available and accurately recorded by participants this is seen as the best alternative.
  • It is important to not compare properties that are in different categories. These may not be comparable for a number of reasons, in particular that the denominators used in the KPIs for different retail properties are very different.


Sample size:

Total number of properties are those included in the UK benchmarking database. There are strict quality control protocols to ensure the Benchmark is robust. Properties are only included in the Benchmark once we have three years’ or more of validated data (from last five years), and they meet the assumptions outlined above. The dataset will grow as we update the Benchmark annually.

  • Office air-conditioned: total = 508, included = 185, excluded = 323
  • Office naturally ventilated: total = 99 , included = 25 , excluded = 74
  • Retail enclosed air-conditioned: total = 68 , included = 37 , excluded = 31
  • Retail enclosed non air-conditioned: total = 74 , included = 53, excluded = 21
  • Retail un-enclosed: total = 160 , included = 66 , excluded = 94
  • Retail car parks:
    • Open: total = 77, included = 6, excluded = 71
    • Covered: total = 22 , included = 14 , excluded = 8
    • Enclosed: total = 15 , included = 4 , excluded = 11
Offices
Proportion by weight
Good practice Typical practice
Segregated on-site sent for recycling, re-use or composting 52% 41%
 
Direct-to-landfill averted 100% 100%
Retail
Proportion by weight
Good practice Typical practice
Segregated on-site sent for recycling, re-use or composting 59% 51%
 
Direct-to-landfill averted 100% 99%

Waste

  • Typical practice = median (50th percentile),
  • Good practice = best performing quartile (25th percentile)
  • Benchmarks are calculated from the average of the most recent three years of data; based on properties for which at least three years of validated data are available within the last five years.
  • Data are based on those provided by weight only – proportion by disposal route of total waste quantity per year.


Sample size:
Total number of properties are those included in the UK benchmarking database. There are strict quality control protocols to ensure the Benchmark is robust. Properties are only included in the Benchmark once we have three years’ or more of validated data (from last five years), and they meet the assumptions outlined above. The dataset will grow as we update the Benchmark annually.

  • Office: total = 307, included = 80, excluded = 227
  • Retail: total = 187, included = 65, excluded = 122
Offices
All offices
Good practice Typical practice
£ / sq m NLA / year £0.90 £1.40
£ / sq ft NLA / year £0.08 £0.13
 
Litres / person / working day 28 41
Litres / sq m NLA / year 448 700
Enclosed retail
Good practice Typical practice
£ / sq m CPA / year £1.02 £1.96
£ / sq ft CPA / year £0.09 £0.18
 
Litres / visit 0.72 1.30
Litres / sq m CPA / year 509 979
Unenclosed retail
Good practice Typical practice
£ / sq m NLA / year £0.06 £0.21
£ / sq ft NLA / year £0.006 £0.019
 
Litres / visit 0.14 0.37
Litres / sq m NLA / year 32 103

Water

  • Typical practice = median (50th percentile),
  • Good practice = best performing quartile (25th percentile)
  • Benchmarks are calculated from the average of the most recent three years of data; based on properties for which at least three years of validated data are available within the last five years.
  • Costs (£) are based on the average unit (m3) costs of fresh and waste water – from published rates of ten major water companies across the UK.
  • Denominator for offices: persons = workers based on best available of either FTEs (full time equivalents) or actively used workstations. Working days = 260 per year.


Sample size:

Total number of properties are those included in the UK benchmarking database. There are strict quality control protocols to ensure the Benchmark is robust. Properties are only included in the Benchmark once we have three years’ or more of validated data (from last five years), and they meet the assumptions outlined above. The dataset will grow as we update the Benchmark annually.

  • Office (per square m): total = 420, included = 147 , excluded = 273
  • Office (per person): total = 420, included = 116, excluded = 304
  • Enclosed retail (per square m): total = 105, included = 63, excluded = 42
  • Enclosed retail (per visit): total = 105, included = 57, excluded = 48
  • Un-enclosed retail (per square m): total = 64, included = 23, excluded = 41
  • Un-enclosed retail (per visit): total = 64, included = 14, excluded = 50